The most famous satirical allegory of Soviet totalitarianism, Animal Farm, was written by George Orwell in 1945. The novel describes how a society's ideologies can be changed and manipulated by individuals and how revolutionaries can turn into tyrannies. It also depicts the progress of liberation movement towards a totalitarian dictatorship. The events and characters in Animal Farm are inspired by the early history of Soviet Union and the persons from real world.
The Time Magazine chose this book among 100 best English-languages novels.
In this book, the Animals of Mr. Jones play the roles of the Bolshevik revolutionaries. Mr. Jones ( Nicholas II of Russia) represents a drinker and capitalist incapable of running the farm. Led by pigs, animals revolt against him because when he drinks much he forgets to feed them. When they in him, they set up a commune based on egalitarian principles, but soon the difference between species or classes start to appear. The flag of Animal Farm consists of a green field (represent the fields of England) with a hoof and horn (an analogy for hammer and sickle, also bears resemblance to the Communist Russia flag). The pigs become corrupted by power and Napoleon (Joseph Stalin), establishes a new tyranny and he becomes "Fathers of all animals". Napoleon is the main tyrant of Animal Farm. Napoleon's mass executions, of which many were unfair, is similar to Stalin executing his political enemies.
In order to allow himself privileges and to justify his dictatorial rule he changes the commandments." All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others".
By the end of the book, Napoleon and other pigs have learnt to walk upright and behave similar to human. The final betrayal is made when the pigs plan to become friends with Mr. Jones.
Napoleon's rival is Snowball (modeled after Leon Trotsky). He makes plans to improve farm and to help animals to create utopia. He is driven out of the farm by Napoleon and his dogs. The dogs are inspired by KGB who ruled by terror under Stalin. Squealer is a Napoleon's public speaker (inspired by Vyacheslav Molotov and the Russian paper Pravda). George Orwell showed through Squealer how politicians used language. Squealer twists and abuses language to excuse every Napoleon's actions, he complicates and confuses debate convincing the animals that life in the farm is getting better and better. Bower is the horse from the working class, he is loyal and dedicated to his leader (and that led him to death), physically strong but naive and slow. His character represents allusion of the financial state of Russia at the time of publication. His best friend is Clover. Benjamin, wise, old donkey, is also dedicated to Boxer, and he is very upset when Bower is taken away. He has know all the time that the pigs are not in right and do wrong things. He represents both the cynics and the role of Jews in society.